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Module Element Relevant Regulations
and Standards
1. Introduction to EDSM and Acronyms
  • Icebreaker, house-keeping etc, interactive training
  • ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable
  • ISA Independent Safety Assessor
  • EDSM Engineering and Design Safety Management
  • FRACAS Failure Recording and Corrective Action System
  • RAM(S) Reliability, Availability, Maintainability (and Safety)
  • SFAIRP So Far AS IS Reasonably Practicable
  • SMS Safety Management Scheme
  • AQF Australian Qualifications Framework
2. Understanding risk
  • What is risk and how is it measured?
  • Types of risk and definitions, measurements
  • The relevant risk management standards
  • Business benefits, legal, financial, performance, project and safety
  • Railway changes, upgrades, maintenance and degraded modes
[6][1][8]
  • Key safety terminology and concepts requirements and standards.
    Relationship between accidents, hazards, causes, failures, faults and errors
[1][8][10][11]
  • Understanding the rail paradigm, the sources of railway risk
  • Railway accident statistics worldwide and Australia, comparison with other industries
  • Trends in data and costs of safety initiatives
[16][17]
  • Trends in data and costs of safety initiatives
[17]
3. Examples of engineering and design safety risk in rail
  • Definition of design and what do we mean by ‘design/engineering safety risk’ in rail?
[18][1]
  • Design costs and lifecycle costs
[12]
  • Design safety/system safety versus OH&S
  • The project /product lifecycle
[1][8][12]
  • Lifecycle activities and effort
[1][2][3][4][5][8]
  • System engineering as a means to managed project complexity

Exercise:
Students to carry out rudimentary safety analysis (example of working through a level crossing risk assessment)

4. Initiating EDSM on a project
  • Safety planning activities within a project lifecycle
[8][10]
  • Safety records, including hazard logs
[8]
  • Examples of design and engineering safety management in practice
  • Configuration management
[8]
  • Requirements management
[8]

Exercise:
Produce a safety plan for a railway implementation project

[8]
5. Case studies of accidents related to design

Learning from the mistakes of others

  • Accident causation
  • Monitoring risk and risk profiles
[8][16][17]
  • Ladbroke Grove, UK, Hatfield UK, Waterfall NSW, Beresfield NSW, Glenbrook NSW
6. What does legislation say about rail design/
engineering safety risk?

Demonstration of ALARP and compliance
A detailed look at the ALARP principle and other Risk Acceptance criteria from around the world including compliance with standards, comparable systems and formal risk assessment

[15][14][8][18][1]
  • A look at the Rail Safety Act and its regulations in Australia
[14]
  • The designer as a ‘rail safety worker’ – what are the implications?
[13]
  • The importance of competency management
[1][8][19]
7. Case study:
Demonstrating ALARP
A practical application of the concept of SFAIRP
How to demonstrate SFAIRP at the design stage
[13][15]
  • Compliance based argument and formal risk assessment approach outlining the novelty/complexity continuum
[15][18]
Practical exercise for participants in the use of these tools
Two worked examples based upon rolling stock compliance and siding gradient risk assessment conducted in Australia
8. Assessing and reducing risk

Defining changes – Identifying hazards

[6][7][8]
  • Risk assessment methods process:
    > Hazard identification
    >Causal consequence analysis
[7][8]

Established methods of examining designs such as Fault Tree and FMECA

[7][8][10]

Exercise:
Fault Tree: exercise of a simple safety system used on the railway – Level Crossing

9. Standards for engineering safety
  • Relevant safety standards and their application
  • Safety requirements and evidence
[1][2][3][4][5][8][9][10][11]
  • Establishing safety requirements
  • Assumptions Dependencies and Caveats (ADCs)
  • Target apportionment
[8][10][1]
  • What does ‘fail safe’ mean
[10][11]
  • Safety Integrity Levels (SILs)
[9][10][11]
  • Analysing various types of safety case and preparing a safety case
[10]
10. Accident case study:
Detailed case study caused by design errors
and inadequate EDSM
  • Wenzhou high speed rail collision case study
  • Entire series of events analysed including review of multiple causes

Group Exercise:
Tailor the safety plan written in a previous to plan the rectification of the issues identified for a new product development. Identify key hazards and plan how they will be controlled

11. Safety organisational issues
  • Defining, allocating and transferring safety responsibilities especially the rail safety worker
  • Organisational goals and safety culture
  • Safety policy
  • Safety competence and training
  • Working with suppliers
  • Communicating and co-ordinating
[1][13]
High reliability organisations and where to look for best practice

Human factors in design

  • Ensuring that the design is user friendly
  • The people factor in design safety risk
  • Learning from the past
[7][8][1]
[8][12]
12. Railway systems engineering and integration Railway system functional breakdown

The systems engineering approach

  • Systems Integration and examples of systems engineering and integration in practice
  • Complexity management
[12][8][1]
  • The importance of user input and stakeholder consultation
  • Requirements, verification and validation, systems and systems boundaries, system theory, levelling and hierarchies, configuration, process models, and trade studies
  • Interface management
  • Worked example of systems engineering employed on a real project
[8][9][12] [1]

Exercise:
Drawing systems boundaries and identifying system hazards – Axle counter application group exercise

[12]
13. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM),
Verification and Validation (V&V)
  • RAM Management
  • Definitions
  • Interaction with System Safety
  • Methods for ensuring reliability. Availability and Maintainability
[8]
  • The importance of V&V
  • The importance of testing and commissioning
  • What can go wrong and how to avoid this
  • Methodology and planning
  • Examples of V&V Planning and execution
[8][9][10]

Exercise:
Verification and validation exercises

14. Safety management systems and quality
management
  • Best practice in SMS. Project and organisation SMS. SMS as a control mechanism for hazards
  • Quality management systems and the reporting of quality management systems to support project and product safety cases. The relationship between safety and quality. Linking the design with reality
[1][2][3][4][5][19][8][13]

Group Exercise:
Put together a GSN safety argument for a simple safety critical product including ALARP demonstration and Safety Case elements

15. Safety acceptance and approval processes
  • Acceptance and Safety Case processes in different countries and Australia, cross acceptance and demonstrating safety
  • Goal Structured Notation (GSN)
  • Compliance with Regulation, certification and licensing. The role of the Australian and state regulators
  • Independent Professional Review
  • Safety audit and safety assessment
  • Levels of independence
  • Commissioning, performing and writing up an audit or assessment
[1][8][10][13]

Group Exercise:
Put together a GSN safety argument for a simple safety critical product including ALARP demonstration and Safety Case elements

16. Sum up and the way forward
  • Potential pitfalls in safety engineering approached and lessons learnt
  • A look at the Hadden Cave report on the 2006 Nimrod Disaster
  • Course summary and the way forward
  • Interactive session: key issues facing the industry and how we can improve, learn from other, manage complexity and provide better performance
17. Course examination
  • Multiple choice paper concerning all aspects of the course

 

Reference Standards, Guidance, Data and Regulations
1. AS4292.1 Part 1: General requirements
2. AS4292.2 Part 2: Track, civil and electrical infrastructure 4292.3 Part 3: Rolling stock
3. AS4292.4 Part 4: Signalling and telecommunications systems and equipment (this standard)
4. AS4292.5 Part 5: Operational systems
5. AS4292.7 Part 7: Railway safety investigation
6. AS/NZS ISO 31000: 2009 Risk management – Principles and guidelines on implementation,
7. ISO/IEC 31010: 2009 Risk management – Risk assessment techniques
8. IEC62278:2002/ EN 50126 “Railway applications – The specification and demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS)”
9. IEC62279:2002 / EN 50128 “Railway applications – Communications, signalling and processing systems – Software for railway control and protection systems”
10. IEC62280:2002/ EN 50129 “Railway applications – Communication, signalling and processing systems – Safety related electronic systems for signalling
11. AS61508.1-2011 Functional safety of electrical/electronic/ programmable electronic safety-related systems – General requirements
12. ISO/IEC 15288: 2008 Systems and software engineering – System life cycle processes
13. Model Rail Safety Bill 2006
14. National Transport Commission (Model Rail Safety Regulations) Regulations 2007
15. National Transport Commission SFAIRP Guidance 2006
16. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) http://www.atsb.gov.au/rail/rail-statistics.aspx
17. ERA DATA http://www.era.europa.eu/Document-Register/Pages/Railway-Safety-Performance-in-the-European-Union-2012.aspx
18. http://www.era.europa.eu/Core-Activities/Safety/Pages/riskassessment.aspx
19. AS/NZS ISO 9001: 2008 Quality Management Systems
20. ARTCS Rail Safety Worker Competence http://www.artc.com.au/Content.aspx?p=220
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