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Course Outline

DAY 1                                                                                                         Download Course Brochure


  • Personal introductions
  • Course overview, individual expectations, Interests and experience

Understanding risk

  • What is risk and how is it measured?
  • The relevant risk management standards e.g. AS/NZS

ISO 31000: 2009 ,ISO/IEC 31010: 2009 and IEC62278:2002/EN 50126

  • Key safety terminology and concepts requirements and standards
  • Common problems encountered
  • Human and behavioural factors
  • Relationship between accidents, hazards, causes, failures, faults and errors

Understanding the rail paradigm

The sources of railway risk including safety incident precursors caused by:

  • Failings in the design of processes, standards, rules and procedures
  • Human factors issues of staff, contractors and passengers
  • Environmental factors
  • Failings of equipment and Degraded modes

Activity: Review a Railway Accident Investigation reports and study the causes, and discuss the safety recommendations. What should have been done prior to avoid the event

Different risk areas

The relationship between

  • Engineering safety change
  • Work Health Safety
  • Environmental
  • Operational risk assessment

A review of rules, procedures and instructions used by the railway operations and engineering.

Risk Assessment throughout the project and operation lifecycle phases and the tools used.

The risk toolbox pros and cons

The application and limits of:

  • Checklists
  • Brainstorming
  • FMEA
  • Preliminary Hazard Analysis
  • Hazard Operability Studies (HAZOP)
  • Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
  • Event Tree Analysis

Activity: Selecting Risk Assessment Process

Risk profiles

  • What is a risk profile?
  • Understanding just what a risk profile is
  • Why an accurate risk profile is essential to any rail organisation
  • How to go about producing a risk profile
  • Why you need a risk profile and how to use it

Activity: Develop a Hazard Profile

  • Principle hazards
  • Exposure to hazards
  • Profiling the organisation against the hazards


Part 1 – risk assessment process preparation

A review of the requirements for:

  • Stakeholders and sponsors
  • Timeframes and scope of work

Hazard identification

  • Familiarisation
  • Initial (Kick-off) meeting and Site visit
  • Document review and stakeholder consultation
  • The hazard identification exercise and output

Hazard analysis

  • Hazard and hazard logs
  • Causes/Consequences
  • Existing controls and further mitigation

Risk estimation

  • Qualitative vs Quantitative risk estimation
  • Collective risk and Individual risk

ALARP Evaluation

  • Gross disproportion concept
  • Cost Benefit Analysis
  • Requirement for CBA
  • Hierarchy of hazard control


  • Formal documentation
  • Independent Verification requirements
  • Review and endorsement

Activity: Scoping out a risk assessment and selecting the process

Part 2 – risk assessment tools


  • Sources of data, limitations and advantages

Activity: Critique a Checklist assessment

Good and bad approaches, limitations and opportunities.

Hazard identification (HAZID)

  • What is a HAZID
  • When to use a HAZID
  • What are the benefits of a HAZID
  • Process for developing a HAZID
  • Safe work procedures and HAZID

Activity: Hazard Identification Workshop

Preparation, Roles, Location, facilities and timing

  • Briefing note
  • Setup and Running the workshop
  • Initial presentation
  • Capturing hazard information
  • Workshop record and review

Hazard and operability (HAZOP)

  • What is a HAZOP
  • When to use HAZOP
  • What are the benefits of using HAZOP
  • What are the limitations of HAZOP
  • Process for performing HAZOP
    • Planning & preparation
    • Assessment criteria
    • Hazard profile
    • Incident scenarios
    • Calculating a risks value
    • Action planning
  • Common pitfalls using HAZOP


  • Scoping out HAZOP exercise
  • Delegate activity & Information sources
  • Activity processes formation


Part 2 – risk assessment tools (continued)

Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA)

  • What is a PHA
  • When to use a PHA
  • What are the benefits of a PHA
  • Process for developing a PHA

Activity: PHA: Develop a PHA for a new signalling train control system

Interface hazard analysis (IHA)

  • What is an IHA
  • When to use an IHA
  • What are the benefits of an IHA
  • Process for developing an IHA

Operating and support hazard analysis (OSHA)

  • What is an OSHA
  • When to use an OSHA
  • What are the benefits of an OSHA
  • Process for developing an OSHA

Failure modes, effects and criticality analysis

  • What is an FMECA and an FMEA
  • When to use them
  • What are the benefits of them and the bottom up approach?
  • Process for developing them

Activity: FMEA: exercise of a simple safety system used on the railway – Level Crossing

Fault tree analysis

  • What is FTA
  • When to use FTA
  • What are the benefits of the top down approach?
  • Process for developing them

Activity: Fault Tree: exercise of a simple safety system used on the railway – Level Crossing

Event tree analysis

  • What is FMECA and FMEA
  • When to use a them
  • What are the benefits of them?
  • Process for developing them

Activity: Event Tree: development of an ETA for an operational safety scenario for train movements

And finally, structured what if (SWIFT)

  • What is SWIFT
  • When to use a it
  • What are the benefits of it and the process for development?

Sum up and the way forward

Course summary and the way forward

  • Interactive session: key issues and how new skills will be employed

Activity: Poster Session


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