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Course Outline


Particle, slurry and bed (filter cake) characteristics

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  • Particle size distribution (PSD)
  • Porosity
  • Solids concentration and density
  • Particle morphology (shape)

Pre-treatment of slurries

  • Coagulation
  • Flocculation
  • Thickening and classification
  • Filter aid for pre-coating and body feed
  Activity: Describe course expectations and particular operational, design, selection, application or other issues

Solid liquid separation (SLS) overview and classification

  • SLS driving forces
  • Clarification and thickening
  • Filtration
  • Centrifugation

Case studies


This section will examine case studies from different industries illustrating the various SLS equipments used and comparisons of different SLS methods.


Sedimentation fundamentals

  • Single particle settling
  • Hindered Settling

Sedimentation equipment and design variations

  • Thickener sizing
  • Clarifiers
  • Lamella clarifier/thickener
  • Conventional thickener
  • High rate thickener
  • Paste thickener
  • Other thickeners

Deep bed filtration/depth filtration

  • Principle
  • Design types

Cross flow and membrane filtration

  • Principle
  • Membrane filtration (micro-, ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis)
  • Membrane module design
  • Membrane fouling
  • Rotating cross flow filters



Description of solid liquid separation equipment and processes used within participants’ plants, operations or past experiences.


Sediment and cake filtration principles

  • Filtration theory
  • Operating parameters affecting cake filtration
  • Sediment and cake compression principles

Particle and cake washing principles

  • Cake washing principles and methods
  • Continuous cake washing
  • Re-slurry wash
  • Wash efficiency
  • Counter current washing and decantation

Cake deliquoring/drying

  • Desaturation mechanisms
  • Capillary force
  • Air flow during cake desaturation

Testing and filtration process design

  • Laboratory filtration testing
  • Pilot scale filtration testing
  • Testwork program considerations
  • Cycle time determination


  Sizing a vacuum and pressure filter based on test data

Filter selection/overview

  • Overview: Vacuum filter
  • Overview: Pressure filter

Continuous vacuum filter types

  • Drum filter
  • Disc filter
  • Belt filter
  • Pan filter

Pressure filter types

  • Bag and cartridge filer
  • Nutsch filter
  • Plate and leaf filter
  • Candle filter
  • Filter presses
  • Belt press filter
  • Screw presses

Filter trouble shooting case studies

  This section will examine examples of filter issues and methods for trouble shooting.

Centrifugal dewatering fundamentals

  • Water in packed beds
  • Centrifugal sedimentation
  • Centrifugal filtration

Centrifugal types

  • Batch filter centrifuges
  • Continuous filter centrifuges
  • Decanter/solid bowl centrifuges
  • Disc stack separator
  • Hydrocyclones

Equipment selection and combinations

  • Selecting thickeners, centrifuges and filters
  • Comparison of vacuum and pressure filters
  • Selection procedures
  • Thickener filter combinations
  • Filtrate polishing

Application overview

  • Coal dewatering
  • Flotation concentrate dewatering
  • Precipitate and leach residue dewatering
  • Tailings dewatering
  • Water and wastewater solid liquid separation
  • Special solid liquid separation applications



Review and analysis of SLS processes and trouble-shooting or problems occurring in participants’ plants, operations and experiences.


Filter media

  • Filter cloth
  • Screen, mesh and wedge wire
  • Cartridges

Wrap up and discussion

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