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Course Outline

MACHINES AND MACHINE STRUCTURES - AN OVERVIEW Download Course Brochure

- Overview of machines used in the mining and materials handling industries
- What is the machine structure?
- How do machines fail?
- How do machine structures fail?


DESIGNING MACHINES - AN OVERVIEW

- The design concept and design assumptions
- Design for performance and survival
- Design evolution
- Resolving conflicts and the procurement process


CASE STUDIES OF MACHINE FAILURES

- Failures due to fatigue
- Failures due to unexpected loads


DESIGNING MACHINE STRUCTURES - AN OVERVIEW

- Overview of machine design principles
- Structural design loads
- Structural capacity
- Structural stability
- Upper limiting loads
- Reliance on mechanical 'fuses'
- Reliance on control and protection systems
- Theoretical vs. actual loads
- Feedback loops and verification
- Analysis techniques - understanding behaviour


ACTIVITY

- Calculate sample loads for some machines
- Stacker stability calculations
- Nominal vs. dropped charge mill load
- Shiploader chute - spout deflection load


FAILURE OF MACHINE STRUCTURES

- How do machine structures fail?
- Primary failure modes (plastic collapse, fracture and buckling)
- Secondary modes (fatigue, corrosion, SCC, wear and etc.)
- Serviceability failures (deflection, vibration)
- Interactions between modes
- Structural criteria
- Manufacturing requirements (ductility, tolerances and mating)


CONSEQUENCES OF COMPONENT FAILURES

- Failure modes effects and criticality assessment
- Risk assessment approach
- Code requirements in the risk assessment context
- Scenario reviews as part of risk assessment


RISK ASSESSMENT EXERCISE

- Initiation of exercise
- Stacker bearing changeout
- Presentations by delegates
- Management decisions
- Engineering decisions
- Contractor decisions
- Shutdown decisions


FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR AND PERFORMANCE

- Fatigue of metals
- Historical perspective
- Initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks
- Initiation and propagation thresholds
- Unwelded vs. welded components
- S-N (stress life) approach
- E-N (strain life) approach
- Scatter and reliability


FATIGUE CRITERIA AND DESIGN

- Fatigue codes - welded structures
- Fatigue codes - unwelded structures
- Stress range criteria
- Effect of mean stress
- Residual stress and effect of stress relieving
- Effect of detail and weld improvements
- Fatigue life vs. risk


ACTIVITY

- Sample fatigue calculations
- Non-welded - comparison of codes
- Weldment - comparison of codes
- Effect of weld improvements


FATIGUE FAILURES IN BOLTS

- Fatigue resistant joints
- Joint requirements
- Bolt requirements
- Practical requirements for bolts and joints


FRACTURE MECHANICS PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

- Basic principles (WTIA tech note)
- Relevant codes (BS7910)
- Fracture behaviour
- Cracks vs. other defects
- Linear elastic fracture mechanics
- Use at design stage
- Use at monitoring stage
- Use at investigation stage


MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT

- 'Maintenance' of machine structures
- Approach to monitoring
- Methods available for monitoring
- Access and time for monitoring
- Cleanliness and information requirements
- Documentation and response
- Monitoring of loads
- Systematic approach
- 'Traceable inspection system'
- Feedback loops


SUMMING UP

- Structures the 'poor cousins'
- Structures need maintenance
- Production pressures and conflicts
- Feedback through the 'machine community'
- Wrap up and feedback
- Questionnaire and requests

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